“Shifa” of Qadhi Iyad and Tafsir Jalalayn refuting the Barailwi Creed
“Ash-Shifa” of Qadi ‘Iyad refuting Barailwi Creed
English translatation by Aisha Bewley, who is famous Darqawi Sufi, p 348-351:
SECTION 3:The Prophet’s states with respect to worldly matters
We will examine the Prophet’s worldly states with respect to his beliefs, reports and actions.
As for worldly beliefs, one aspect of his state in this regard is that it was possible for him to believe something concerning the matters of this world based on one interpretation when the opposite was true, or to be subject to doubt or supposition regarding them. These matters are not the same as matters of the Shari’a.
Rafi’ ibn Khadij said that the Messenger of Allah came to Madina while they were pollinating the dates and asked, “What are you doing?” They told him and he said, “Perhaps it would be better not to do it.” So they left it and there were less dates. They mentioned that to him and he said, “I am a man. If I command you to do something in your deen, then do it. If I tell you something from opinion, I am but a man.”‘ Anas added, “You know better the affairs of your world.” Another variant has, “I had an opinion, so do not blame me for having an opinion.”
In the hadith from Ibn ‘Abbas we find, “I am a man. What I tell you from Allah is true. In what I say from myself, I am but a man. I can err and I can be right.” This is what he said about himself regarding his opinions about the affairs of this world. That is not the case with any words which came from him or his ijtihad when laying down the Shari’a or making a sunna.
This matter is also illustrated by what Ibn Ishaq has related about the time the Prophet dismounted near the waters of Badr. AI-Hubab ibn al-Mundhir said to him, “Is this a place where Allah has made you dismount so we cannot go forward or is it simply a question of opinion, military tactics and strategy.” He said, “It is opinion, military tactics and strategy.” Al-Hubab said, “Then this is not the place to dismount. Continue until we come nearer the water, towards the enemy. We can alight there and then we can fill up the wells beyond it. We will drink and they will not drink.” The Prophet said, “You have indicated the correct course of action,” and did what al-Hubab had suggested.
Allah said to the Prophet, “Take counsel with them concerning the matter.” (7:159)
The Prophet wanted to placate one of his enemies with a third of the dates of Madina. He took counsel with the Ansar and, after hearing their opinion, changed his mind. Fallibility of this kind which pertains to any such worldly matters which do not involve the science of the deen, its beliefs or teachings are permitted to him since none of this implies imperfection or demotion. They are ordinary things capable of being known by anyone who attempts to learn and occupy himself with them. The heart of the Prophet, however, was filled with gnosis of Allah’s lordship. He was full of the sciences of the Shari’a. His mind was directed towards the best interests of his community in this world and the deen.
But such fallibility only happened in respect of certain matters. The rare case is allowed and in things which concern observing this world and its fruits, not in doing such things often, followed by stupidity and inattention. Many transmissions have come from the Prophet showing a deep knowledge of the matters of this world and understanding of the fine points concern¬ing the best interests of his people and the politics of the different groups of his followers which was a miracle among men. This has already been discussed in the chapter of this book devoted to his miracles.
SECTION 4:The Prophet’s judgements
As for what the Prophet thought concerning his human capacity to judge, the recognition of the true from the false, and the science of distinguishing the beneficial from the corrupt, this is similar to the previous topic
Umm Salama said that the Prophet said, “I am a man and you bring your quarrels to me. Perhaps one of you might know how to argue more eloquently than the other, and so I would decide in his favour according to what I hear.
Whoever is given a judgement which contains any of his brother’s right should not take any of it or a piece of the Fire will be cut out for him.” In the transmission of az-Zuhri from ‘Urwa, it has, “Perhaps one of you might be more eloquent than the other and so I would suppose that he was speaking the truth and give judgement in his favour.”
His judgements were based on the apparent evidence and what the prevailing opinion demanded through the testimony of witnesses, swearing on oath, looking for the most likely interpretation, and recognising a hawk from a handsaw while knowing what the wisdom of Allah demands concerning these things.
If Allah had so willed, He would have acquainted the Prophet with the secrets of His slaves and the hidden consciences of his community and then he would have judged between them by pure certainty and knowledge without any need for confession, clear proof, oath or probability. However, since Allah has commanded his community to follow the Prophet and imitate his actions, states, decisions and life, and since this knowledge, had it existed, would have been part of his special knowledge by which Allah preferred him, his community would not have had any way of following him in this respect nor of establishing a proof, through the precedent of one of his cases in his shari’a, because they would not know what he had been shown in that case which caused him to reach the judgement he reached. It would have been by a hidden element of Allah’s teaching to him by which he was able to see into their secrets. The community as a whole would not have access to it.
Allah made the Prophet’s judgement proceed by the outward, in which he and other men are equal, so as to enable his community to imitate him completely both in respect of particular judgements and also as regards arriving at a judgement. The community have taken his sunna from this outward knowledge and certainty since clarification by action is more sublime than that by verbal reports due to the comparative nature of verbal expressions and their openness to different interpretations. Reaching judgement by outward actions has a more subtle clarification, is clearer in judgement and has greater benefit for the needs of disputes and quarrels. It was also in order to enable the community to be guided by all the judgements he made and so that verification of what has been related from him would be made possible and the rule of his shari’a could be established. Hidden within these judgements is some of the knowledge of the Unseen which the Knower of the Unseen has kept back. “He does not show His Unseen to anyone, except for a Messenger with whom He is pleased.” (72:26) He teaches him what He wills of it and keeps to Himself what He wills. None of this detracts from his prophethood nor does it lessen his protection.
End of Qadi ‘Iyad’s words
Comment: This is a clear refutation of the Bralwi claim that the Prophet (saw) is given knowledge of everything, knowledge of every science, mathematics, physics, biologie, and also the Prophet (saw) knows what is in the hearts and thoughts of people.
Tafsir Jalalayn refuting the Barailwi Creed
Below are some extracts of the English translation of “Tafsir Al-Jalalayn”, translated by the Darqawi Shazili Sufi Aisha Bewley. This Tafsir is among most famous and studied in many Madaris in the Muslim world. It was composed by Hafiz Jalaluddin Suyuti and his teacher Jalaluddin Al-Mahalli. Hafiz Suyuti is also a Sufi and a great scholar of Hadith. Al-Mahalli’s Tafsir is from Surah Kahf to the end and also Surah Fatihah. Hafiz As-Suyuti’s tafsir is from Surah Fatihah up to Surah Kahf.
In the english translation, the words in Bold are the translation of the Quran, and others in non-bold are words of Tafsir of As-Suyuti or his teacher
The Prophet (saw) was not seeing events of Zakariyya and Maryam
P 128, Surah Al ‘Imran, Ayah 44
ذَلِكَ مِنْ أَنْبَاءِ الْغَيْبِ نُوحِيهِ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا كُنْتَ لَدَيْهِمْ إِذْ يُلْقُونَ أَقْلَامَهُمْ أَيُّهُمْ يَكْفُلُ مَرْيَمَ وَمَا كُنْتَ لَدَيْهِمْ إِذْ يَخْتَصِمُونَ
Hafiz As-Suyuti wrote in explanation:
“This (what We have mentioned about Zakariyya and Maryam) is news from the Unseen, of things which you did not see. Muhammad, which We reveal to you. You were not with them when they cast their reeds into the water to draw lots to see which of them should be the guardian of Maryam and have custody of her. You were not with them when they quarrelled about it. This news is Revelation.”
Comment: Here, Hafiz As-Suyuti clearly said that the Prophet (saw) did not see the events of Zakariyya and Maryam and Allah only informed him (saw) of this through revelation (Wahy), while the Bralwis say that the Prophet (saw) is a witness of all actions of past and futures people, and he was Hadhir and Nadhir, seeing all the past events.
Knowledge of Ghayb is invisible to the Prophet (saw)
P 370, Surah Al-A’raf, Ayat 187-188:
يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ السَّاعَةِ أَيَّانَ مُرْسَاهَا قُلْ إِنَّمَا عِلْمُهَا عِنْدَ رَبِّي لَا يُجَلِّيهَا لِوَقْتِهَا إِلَّا هُوَ ثَقُلَتْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ لَا تَأْتِيكُمْ إِلَّا بَغْتَةً يَسْأَلُونَكَ كَأَنَّكَ حَفِيٌّ عَنْهَا قُلْ إِنَّمَا عِلْمُهَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ
قُلْ لَا أَمْلِكُ لِنَفْسِي نَفْعًا وَلَا ضَرًّا إِلَّا مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ وَلَوْ كُنْتُ أَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ لَاسْتَكْثَرْتُ مِنَ الْخَيْرِ وَمَا مَسَّنِيَ السُّوءُ إِنْ أَنَا إِلَّا نَذِيرٌ وَبَشِيرٌ لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ
Hafiz As-Suyuti wrote in explanation:
“They (the people of Makka) will ask you about the Hour (the Day of Resurrection): when is it due? Say to them: ‘Knowledge of it and when it will occur rests with my Lord alone. He alone will reveal it at its proper time. It hangs heavy for many people in the heavens and the earth because of the terror it inspires. It will not come upon you except suddenly.’ They will ask you insistently as if you had full knowledge of it. Say: ‘Knowledge of it rests with Allah alone, but most people do not know that.’
Say: ‘I possess no power to bring help or avert harm from myself, except as Allah wills. If I had had knowledge of the Unseen, which is invisible to me, I would have sought to gain much good, and no evil such as poverty and other things would have touched me and I would have been careful to avoid harmful things. I am only a warner about the Fire for the unbelievers and a bringer of good news of the Garden to people who believe.’”
Comment: Here, Hafiz As-Suyuti clearly wrote that the knowledge of Ghayb is invisible to the Prophet (saw) and if the Prophet (saw) possessed this knowledge, he would have been careful to avoid harmful things. And we wee that the Prophet (saw) faced difficulties, was touched by magic, some of his companions were killed by tribes who claimed to be Muslims then killed the companions sent to them, and in the battle of Uhud many Muslims became martyred.
The Prophet (saw) was censured by Allah for accepting excuses of some people
P 410, Surah At-Tawba, Ayah 43
عَفَا اللَّهُ عَنْكَ لِمَ أَذِنْتَ لَهُمْ حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكَ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا وَتَعْلَمَ الْكَاذِبِينَ
Hafiz As-Suyuti wrote in explanation:
“43. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave permission to a group to stay behind on his own initiative and the following was revealed to censure him. The pardon came before the censure, to calm his heart. Allah pardon you! Why did you excuse them for staying behind, rather than just leaving them until it was clear to you which of them were telling the truth in their excuse and until you knew the liars in that respect?”
Comment: So here, Hafiz As-Suyuti said that the Prophet (saw) relying on his own Ijtihad accepted excuses of some people, and Allah send this Ayah to censure the Prophet (saw).
The Prophet (saw) was not witness to the events of Musa (aley salam)
P 840, Surah Al-Qasas Ayat 44-46:
وَمَا كُنْتَ بِجَانِبِ الْغَرْبِيِّ إِذْ قَضَيْنَا إِلَى مُوسَى الْأَمْرَ وَمَا كُنْتَ مِنَ الشَّاهِدِينَ
وَلَكِنَّا أَنْشَأْنَا قُرُونًا فَتَطَاوَلَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْعُمُرُ وَمَا كُنْتَ ثَاوِيًا فِي أَهْلِ مَدْيَنَ تَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِنَا وَلَكِنَّا كُنَّا مُرْسِلِينَ
وَمَا كُنْتَ بِجَانِبِ الطُّورِ إِذْ نَادَيْنَا وَلَكِنْ رَحْمَةً مِنْ رَبِّكَ لِتُنْذِرَ قَوْمًا مَا أَتَاهُمْ مِنْ نَذِيرٍ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ
“You, Muhammad, were not on the western side of the mountain or the valley when We gave Musa the command: the Message to Pharaoh and his people. You were not a witness so that you could know it.
Yet We produced further generations after Musa, and ages passed — so they forgot their contract with Allah, many knowledges disappeared, and Revelation ceased. Therefore We brought you as a Messenger and revealed to You the news of Musa and others. Nor did you live among the people of Madyan and recite Our Signs to them, enabling you to learn their story and report it, yet We have sent you news of them. We sent the Message to you with news of those who went before.
Nor were you on the side of the Mount when We called Musa to take hold of the Book with vigour; yet it is a mercy from your Lord that He sent you so that you may warn a people (the people of Makka) to whom no warner came before, so that perhaps they will pay heed.”
Comment: Here, the Quran clearly tells that the Prophet (saw) was not a witness to the story of Musa when Allah spoke to Musa on Mount Tur. And Al-Mahalli said that the Prophet (saw) was not a witness to this event so that he could know it. It is important to see that the Arabic word used here is “Shahid” (witness), so not only knowledge of these events is denied but also being present there and being a witness. And Bralwis use the word “Shahid” in other Ayat to try to justify their creed, and here it totally oppose their creed.
Before Wahy, the Prophet (saw) was not aware of the laws and practices of Islam
P 1045, Surah Ash-Shura, Ayah 52
وَكَذَلِكَ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ رُوحًا مِنْ أَمْرِنَا مَا كُنْتَ تَدْرِي مَا الْكِتَابُ وَلَا الْإِيمَانُ وَلَكِنْ جَعَلْنَاهُ نُورًا نَهْدِي بِهِ مَنْ نَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا وَإِنَّكَ لَتَهْدِي إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ
“Accordingly We have revealed to you, Muhammad, a Ruh —meaning the Qur’an, which gives life to the hearts, as We revealed to other Messengers — by Our command. Before the revelation came you had no idea of what the Book (the Qur’an) was, or faith —meaning the laws and practices of Islam. Yet We have made it (the Ruh or the Book) a Light by which We guide those of Our slaves We will. Truly you are guiding — by the revelation given to you — to a Straight Path — the din of Islam”
Comment: Here, Hafiz Al-Mahalli clearly denied that the Prophet (saw) knew the laws of Islam before Wahy, while the Bralwis say that the Prophet (saw) since his creation knew all the future and everything that is to happen, and all sciences, whether religious or scientific. And Hafiz As-Suyuti did not see any objections and approved this explanation.
At the beginning, the Prophet (saw) did not know his end in this world
P 1079, Surah Ahqaf, Ayah 9
قُلْ مَا كُنْتُ بِدْعًا مِنَ الرُّسُلِ وَمَا أَدْرِي مَا يُفْعَلُ بِي وَلَا بِكُمْ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَى إِلَيَّ وَمَا أَنَا إِلَّا نَذِيرٌ مُبِينٌ
“Say: ‘I am nothing new — no innovation — among the Messengers — not the first Messenger. There were many before me, so how can you deny me? I have no idea what will be done with me or you in this world: whether I will be expelled from my land or killed as happened to Prophets before me, or whether you will throw stones at me or whether the earth will swallow you up as happened with oth¬ers before you. I only follow what has been revealed to me — in other words, the Qur’an, and I do not innovate anything from myself. I am only a clear warner.’”
Comment: these are clear words in “Tafsir Jalalayn” saying that the Prophet (saw) in first place did not know his end in this world and Hafiz As-Suyuti clearly approved this explanation of his teacher.
The Prophet (saw) did not have knowledge of time of resurrection
P 1293, Surah al-Nazi’at, Ayat 42-44
يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ السَّاعَةِ أَيَّانَ مُرْسَاهَا
فِيمَ أَنْتَ مِنْ ذِكْرَاهَا
إِلَى رَبِّكَ مُنْتَهَاهَا
« They (the unbelievers of Makka) ask you about the Last Hour: ‘When will it arrive?’ What are you doing mentioning it — anything about it? “You have insufficient knowledge even to mention it.” Its coming is your Lord’s affair. The knowledge of its time is with Allah, and only He knows it.”
Comment: Here it is clearly told that the Prophet (saw) does not know when the time of resurrection will come.
The Prophet (saw) was not aware of the story of Yusuf (aley salam) before Wahy
P 518, Surah Yusuf, Ayah 102,
ذَلِكَ مِنْ أَنْبَاءِ الْغَيْبِ نُوحِيهِ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا كُنْتَ لَدَيْهِمْ إِذْ أَجْمَعُوا أَمْرَهُمْ وَهُمْ يَمْكُرُونَ
Hafiz Suyuti wrote:
102. This — what has been narrated about Yusuf — is news of the Unseen that was unknown to you, Muhammad, before — which We reveal to you. You were not with them (the brothers of Yusuf) when they decided what to do — and plotted and resolved on it — and devised their scheme about him. You were not with them to know his story and be aware of it. Your knowledge of it comes from Revelation.
Comment: Hafiz As-Suyuti clearly said that the Prophet (saw) was not aware of the story of Yusuf (aley salam) and was not with them. This speech does not leave any ambiguity.
The Prophet (saw) was not aware of the story of Nuh (aley salam) before Wahy
P 475, Surah Hud, Ayah 49,
تِلْكَ مِنْ أَنْبَاءِ الْغَيْبِ نُوحِيهَا إِلَيْكَ مَا كُنْتَ تَعْلَمُهَا أَنْتَ وَلَا قَوْمُكَ مِنْ قَبْلِ هَذَا فَاصْبِرْ إِنَّ الْعَاقِبَةَ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ
Hafiz As-Suyuti wrote:
“That (the story of Nuh) is some of the news of the Unseen which was concealed from you which We reveal to you, Muhammad. Neither you nor your people knew it (the Qur’an) before this time. So be steadfast in conveying the Message and in the face of injury as Nuh was. The best (most praiseworthy) end result is for those who are godfearing.
Comment: Here Hafiz As-Suyuti clearly said that the story of Nuh (aley salam) was concealed to the Prophet (saw).
And all of these are words of well-known and famous Sufi scholars, and it is translated by a Sufi, so Bralwis cannot say that it is the mistranslation of Salafis-Ahlul Hadith.
May Allah send Salah and Salam on the Prophet (saw), his household, his companions, and those who follow them.
Complied by Ali Hassan Khan