“The different Eras of the Islamic Government” by Hafiz Muhammad Gondalwi
Hafiz Muhammad Gondalwi wrote in “Tanqeed Masail” which is present in “Rasail Gondalwi” p 354 and after:
"The different stages of the Islamic governments:
We divide the government after the Prophet (saw) in 4 parts:
First era: the era of Khilafah Raashidah and Khilafah ala Manhaj Nubuwwah, which period was 30 years.
Second era: The era of the government of Banu Umayah, which is called kingdom and Mulk Adhudh, in which common people faced hardships from kings.
Third era: The era of the government of Abbasids which was an era of Jabariyat
Afterwards it was the era of the Turkish government. Shah Waliullah said that this era resembled the Majusi government.
The last three eras are in agreement that their government is familial, and everyone after the previous was worse in some aspects, this Hukm (ruling) is for the majority, not all, rather it is possible that some individuals of later eras are more pious than some individuals of previous ones, and it is possible that some pious people are from such category that except the familial government, there is no other Kharabi (ill) in them, rather some are qualified to run a government like Khilafah Rashidah.
A common matter in all these governments was that these governments were supportable by the majority, as their constitution was Islamic, and they were all people of Dawah…Though they had fights among themselves which were regrettable, but their existence was a mercy, under them the people of Islam found progress, their lives and properties were safe, they could act freely on Sharee’ah, but as the government was not on the Manhaj of Nubuwwah, they could not gather people in one place, Shi’a became separate, the government in India was separate, the Khawarij remained busy in making their separate government, Afghanistan was separate, Banu Umayah made its separate cultural government in Andalus, and in this manner in different places the people of Islam remained separate from Khilafah.
Due to this Tashatut and division, the thieves of Europe found an occasion to bring the Islamic countries to their present situation, and they infused in them the teachings of nationalism, to the point that the Khilafah that was run by Turks was terminated by the separation of Arabs, and the Muslims became Muntashir, divided into small countries.
Now is the era in which there is no Khilafah nor a caliph, rather there is a different Ameer for each country. Now it is obligatory upon Muslims that they should try to unite the Islamic countries for a common benefit, and all leaders of Islamic countries should make Jam'iyat (organization) by whose decision all matters are decided, and at the end the particular lawful restrictions are reduced to as less as possible until there is a common law for all of them. Now the form known to establish Khilafah is that we establish an atmosphere for the establishment of an Islamic constitution in every country, we promote such a curriculum for education in each country that gets each country closer to the other. The limits created for Ittihad between Muslims or that we face such as tribalism, nationalism or ethnic preferences, the needs and poverty of the people of Islam, efforts are made to eradicate such things. A Jam'iyat of all Islamic countries should be formed whose gatherings occur every year in different countries.
Nowadays we need to think being separate from the effects sectarianism (Firqah Prasti). AHL E HADITH SHOULD NOT TRY THAT THEIR POLITICAL JAMAAT IS SEPARATE, likewise Deobandis should leave the thought that politics is their property, and upon this analogy Brelwis should not think to have their own political system, and likewise separate Jam'iyaat should not be made under the name of the Shi’a and Sunni sects, rather with this mentioned great work, INTERNAL WORK OF REFORM SHOULD CARRY ON, as Hazrat Musa (pbuh) without distinguishing between the pious and evil, he organised all Bani Israail for freedom and with it he was carrying on their internal reform.
Establishing Khilafah this way, though it looks at first glance difficult, but Allah (Ta'ala) by external factors has created such an atmosphere that the world is divided in three categories:
1) The interprets of the Communist thoughts
2) The admirers of European democracy
3) The believers in the Islamic Nizam (system)
If the people of Islam now by insufflating in the Islamic countries the constitution and spirit of Islam, become successful in making them Muttahid, then on another time their Imamah can show to the world the straight path"