Biography of Shaykh Abul Kalam Azad
Shaykh Abul Kalam Azad was born on 17 August 1888 in Makkah. In 1898 he returned to India and his mother passed away on the same year. He launched the same year the monthly magazine "Narang Khayal" in Calcutta.
He married in 1901 (at age of 13), and in January 1901, he launched the weekly magazine "Al-Misbah" and with it he also became the director of "Risalah Muhammadiyah" Kanpur.
In 1903, he became the director of of the weekly magazine "Ahsan Al-Akhbar" Calcutta and in the same year in March 1903 he became the assistant director of the monthly magazine "Khadang Nazar" Lukhnow, and with it he also became the director of "Edward Gazette" Shahjahanpur, and on 20 November 1903, he launched the monthly magazine "Lisan As-Sidq" which carried on up to May 1905.
At the beginning of 1905, he became a member of the board of "Wakeel Amritsar" but separated from it in September 1905. In October 1905, he became the assistant director of the monthly "An-Nadwah Lukhnow" and separated from it in March 1906 and returned to Calcutta.
In April 1906, he became again director of "Wakeel Amritsar" and left it in November 1906 and returned to Calcutta.
In January 1907, he became director of the weekly magazine "Dar As-Sultanat" Calcutta and in September 1907, he became for a third time the director of "Wakeel" Amritsar and he resigned from it in August 1908 when his father Molana Khayrudin became very ill. His father passed away on 15 August 1908.
In 1909, he traveled to western Asia and France.
On the 13th July 1912, he launched the weekly magazine "Al-Hilal". This magazine was forced to give guarantee of 2000 rupees after an article regarding the incident of Masjid Kanpur. In 1914, after an article, their guarantee was taken and a new guarantee of 10 000 Rupees was asked but they could not pay it, hence the magazine ended with its last number on 6 November 1914.
On the 12 November 1915, he launched the weekly magazine "Al-Balagh".
On the 8 March 1916, the government of Bengal exiled him from the province and he went to Ranchi (Bihar). In April 1916, "Al-Balagh" was terminated.
The government of Ranchi imprisoned him. In 1919, his book "Tazkirah" was published, followed by the book "Jami Ash-Shawahid fi Dukhul Ghayr al-Muslim fil Masajid". He was released from jail on the 1st January 1920.
On the 28-29 February 1920, he presided the Bengal provincial Khilafat Conference and his Khutbah Sadarat was on topic: "Masalah Khilafat wa Jazeeratul Arab"
On 13 September 1921, he became the supervisor of the weekly magazine "Pegham e Aap". Its editor was Shaykh AbdurRazaq Muleehabadi.
on 25 October 1921, he presided the provincial Khilafat Conference Aagrah. On the 18 to 20 November 1921, he presided the sitting of Jamiyah Al-Ullamah Hind.
On 10 December 1921, he was imprisoned for a year and he spent his sentence on Alipur Jail. He made an historical speech in this trial which was published afterwards in the form of a book called "Qawl Faisal".
He was released from jail on 6 January 1922 and on the first April 1923, he launched the every 15 days magazine "Al-Jamiah" (Arabic) and Shaykh AbdurRazaq Muleehabadi was its editor.
On the 15 September 1923, he presided the sitting of All India National Congress in Delhi. On the 29 December 1925, he presided the All India Khilafat Conference. On the 10 June 1927, he relaunched "Al-Hilal" which carried on up to December 1927.
In 1930, he became the Qaim Maqam president of All India National Congress. He was imprisoned on 21 August 1930 and released in January 1931. In September 1931, he published the first volume of his Tafsir "Tarjuman Al-Qur'an".
In 1940, he was elected as the president of All India National Congress and remained continuously president of it up to 1946.
In 1941 he was sentenced for 2 years and was imprisoned in Ninital Jail, and was released in December 1941. On 9 August 1943, he was arrested and imprisoned in fort AhmadNagar. On 19 April 1943, his wife Zulekha Begum passed away.
In April 1945, he was transferred from AhmadNagar to Balkor jail and was freed on 15 June 1945.
On 26 June 1946, he participated to the Shimla Conference (in which Gandhi, Qaid e A'zam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and British viceroy Field Marshal Wavell were there with other leaders of Congress and Muslim League to disucss independence) and at the beginning of 1946, his writings "Ghubar Khatir" and "Karwan e Khayal" were published.
On the 15 January 1947, he was appointed as the education minister of the transitional Indian government after independence.
On the 14 January 1951, he was elected deputy leader of the Parliamentary party (of Congress). He went to the Unesco conference in Paris on 18 May 1951, and afterwards went to London, Rome, Iran and Karachi were he visited as well the grave of Qaid e A'zam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
He was elected in the first general elections of India in February 1952 from constituency of Lok Sabha, and he was appointed as minister of education, natural resources and science and technology.
On 25 May 1953, he was appointed as Qaim Maqam prime minister. On 15 June 1955, he visited London, France and West Germany.
He was reelected in March 1957 elections, and given ministries of education and science and technology.
On the 15 February 1958, he gave his final speech on "Anjuman Taraqi Urdu Hind" conference in Delhi.
He had a stroke on 19 February 1958 and passed away on the 22 February 1958.
Shaykh Abul Kalam Azad followed Congress and Gandhi's views of united India and supported Gandhi's movement of non violent civil disobedience, and he differed with Qaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah's and Muslim league's 2 nations theory, but once Pakistan came to existence, he wished that Pakistan became strong and a strong Pakistan is good for Indian Muslims.
Dr Abu Sulaiman Shah Jahanpuri wrote: "He was opposed to the creation of Pakistan, he did not consider the scheme of Pakistan as a correct solution for the 90 millions of Muslims, but when national agreement was reached (for Pakistan) then he stopped opposing it…He never asked for Pakistan to be terminated, or weakened, or creating hurdles in its progress, or creating problems in it, rather he was wishing for Pakistan Istihkam, growth of democracy, good relations between its classes and sects, and good relations with India, rather he displayed excellent efforts for it" ("Athar Nuqush" p 29)
Shaykh Abul Kalam Azad authored 130 books, despite being among most Mutaharik in Indian independence with Congress and being minister with Congress after Independence. List of his books:
1) Tarjuman Al-Quran.
2) Baqiyat Tarjuman Al-Quran.
3) Tasawurat Qur'an.
4) Ashab Kahf.
5) Umm Al-Kitab.
6) Al-Qawl Al-Mateen fi Tafseer Surah At-Teen.
7) Rehnamae Hurriyat.
8) Haqiqat Salah.
9) Jami Ash-Shawahid fi Dukhul Ghayr Al-Muslim Al-Masajid.
10) Maqalat Al-Hilal.
12) Haqiqat Zakah.
13) Jihad or Islam.
14) Tabarukat Azad.
15) Mazameen Abul Kalam.
16) Nigar Shat Azad.
17) Mazameen Abul Kalam.
18) Ila wa Takhiir.
19) Musalman Awrat.
20) Amr bil Ma'roof.
22) Itihhad Islami.
23) al-Farq Bayna Awliya Allah wa Awliya Shaytan.
24) Mawa'iz Rabee ul Awwal.
25) Maqalat Azad.
26) Khutbat Azad.
27) Sadae Haqq.
28) Karwan e Khiyal.
29) Rasool e Rahmat (saw).
30) Waladat Nabawi.
31) Anbiya e Kiram.
32) Azad ki Kahani khud Azad ki Zubani.
33) Insaniyat Mawt ke Darwaze par.
35) Shaheed e A'zam.
36) Al-Bayruni wal Geographia Alam.
37) Dars e Wafa.
38) Islam or Azadi.
39) Pabandi A'hd or Quran e Hakeem.
40) Sadae Khawf.
42) Azeemat wa Da'wat.
43) Shahadat Husayn.
44) Da'wat e Haqq.
45) Hujr wa Wisal.
46) Masalah Khilafat or Jazeeratul Arab.
47) Foji Mulazamat.
48) 'Adalat Na Insafi ka Qadeem Zareeah.
50) Mukamal Tahriri Bayan.
51) Molana Azad ka Mukamal Muqaddamah.
52) Pakistan ki scheme Molana Azad ke Qalam se.
53) Molana Abul Kalam Azad ne Bare Sagheer Pakohind ke Bare me kiya kaha tha.
54) Tahreek Azadi.
55) Al-Hurriyah fil Islam.
56) Insan ki Hayat Salihah.
57) Qawl Faysal.
58) Mazameen Al-Hilal.
59) Intikhab Al-Hilal.
60) Tanziyat Azad.
61) Imam Al-Hind Molana Abul Kalam Azad ka Faislah or Maler Kotlah ka Niza'.
62) Tasreehat Azad.
63) Afkaar Azad.
64) Ghubar Khatir.
65) Makateeb Abul Kalam.
66) Mera Aqidah.
67) Makateeb Abul Kalam Azad.
68) Tabarukat Azad.
69) Nawadir Abul Kalam.
70) Mazameen Lisan As-Sidq.
71) Khutbah e Sadarat (Khilafat Cinference Aagrah February 1920)
72) Khutbah Sadarat (Ijlas Congress Delhi 15 September 1923)
73) Khutbah Sadarat (Ijlas Congress Ramgarh 1940)
74) Khatam e Nubuwwat.
75) India ya Nez Freedom.
76) Naqsh e Azad.
Non Published books:
1) Tafsir Surah Fatihah
2) Amthal Al-Qur'an.
3) Tafsir Al-Bayan.
4) Sharh Hadith Ghurbat.
5) Haqiqat Mujizat.
6) Haqiqat Fana wa Baqa.
7) Tarjamah Noor Al-Lum'ah fi Fadhail Al-Jumu'ah.
8) Tariqah e Hajj.
10) Khasais Muslim.
11) Al-Qawl Ath-Thabit.
12) Qur'an ka Qanoon Urooj wa Zawal.
13) Islami Masail.
14) Urooj wa Zawal.
15) Ittihaf Al-Khalaf.
16) Ek Mustaqil Risalah.
17) Tahseel Sa'adatayn.
18) Al-Kalim At-Tayib.
19) Ahsan Al-Malik.
20) Khasais Muhammadiyah.
21) Seerah Taybah Makhooz Iz Qur'an Majeed.
22) Nafahat Al-Uns.
23) Hakeem Khaqani Sherwani.
24) Hafiz Shirazi.
25) Umar Khayam.
26) Tarjamah Tazkirah Abe Hayat.
27) Shah Waliyullah.
28) Mujaddid Alf Thani.
29) Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal.
30) Imam Ibn Taymiyah.
31) Hazrat Yusuf (Aleyhi Salam)
32) Hayat Sarmad.
33) Tarikhi Shaksiyaten.
34) Chahar Maqalah
35) Sharf Jahan Qazwini ke Diwan par Tabsirah.
36) Diwan e Ghazaliyat.
37) Masnawi wa Thal wa Man.
38) Diwan e Ghalib Urdu par Tabsirah.
39) Subh Umeed.
40) Farhand Jadeed.
41) Kashish Maadah or Kashish Ishq.
42) Al-Uloom Al-Jadeedah.
44) Ma'arif An-Nafahat.
45) Tahafut Al-Falsafah.
47) Islam ka Nazriya Jihad.
48) I'lan Al-Haqq (Muhammad Law)
49) Khilafat Islamiyah.
50) Islam ke Siyasi Tasawurat.
52) Islami Tawheed or Mazahib Alam.
53) Isayat Ka Masalah.
54) Tarikh Mu'tazilah.
Source of list: 40 Ahl e Hadith scholars by Shaykh AbdurRasheed Iraqee.
Note: Many of the unpublished books told by Shaykh AbdurRasheeq Iraqee such as "Quran ka Qanoon Uruj wa Zawal", "Islam ka Nazriyah Jihad", "Falsafah", "Hazrat Yusuf" and others have been published nowadays. Also book "Tawheed wa Shahadat" of Shaykh Abul Kalam Azad has been published from magazines Balagh. The 3 books "Islam or Jumhuriyat", "Islam ka Nazriyah Jang" and "Rasool Akram (saw) or Khulafa Rashidin ke Akhiri Lamhat" have not been listed by Shaykh AbdurRasheed Iraqee, but 3 books in his list seem to appear twice (Tabarukat Azad, Makateeb Azad and Mazameen Azad)
Views of contemporary scholars on Shaikh Abul Kalam Azad.
Allamah Iqbal said: "Abul Kalam is an Imam and a Mujtahid"
Shaykh Sayid Sulayman Nadwi said: "Allah (Ta'ala) gave him intelligence, a sharp memory, skills to express and communicate in an unrivalled manner"
Shaykh Sayid Mawdudi said: "Molana Azad's greatest particularity is that his opponents would throw insults at him but he would not insult anyone. He was very much a Shareef An-Nafs and individual of bright natural disposition"
Shayky Ameen Ahsan Islahi said: "Molana Abul Kalam Azad was an Imam and a Mujtahid. His brain was made after assembling many thousands of brains"
Shaikh Hakeem Sayid Abdul Hay Hasani (father of Shaikh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi) said: "The noble Shaykh, unique among men, rare among his era, Abul Kalam Muhiudin Azad Dehlwi"
Source: 40 Scholars of Hadith of Shaykh AbdurRasheed Iraqee.